THE SUPERCHARGED LIFE: The Ultimate Guide To Owning A Tesla

THE SUPERCHARGED LIFE: The Ultimate Guide To Owning A Tesla

I Wrote The Book On Tesla...Literally!

If you are like me, you either already have a Tesla parked out front or plan to have one someday. This book is for you. I have been fortunate to own both a Model S, a Model X, and a Model 3 in the past 7 years. In that time, my love and admiration for Tesla have grown exponentially with each Autopilot-driven mile.

So I decided to write a definitive guide to owning a Tesla. This book will tell you everything you need to know about ALL Tesla models in production and those scheduled for production. Think of it as your owner's manual written from the perspective of an actual Tesla owner. You can probably find tidbits about owning a Tesla scattered all over the internet.

I Wrote The Book On Tesla...Literally!

If you are like me, you either already have a Tesla parked out front or plan to have one someday. This book is for you. I have been fortunate to own both a Model S, a Model X, and a Model 3 in the past 7 years. In that time, my love and admiration for Tesla have grown exponentially with each Autopilot-driven mile.

So I decided to write a definitive guide to owning a Tesla. This book will tell you everything you need to know about ALL Tesla models in production and those scheduled for production. Think of it as your owner's manual written from the perspective of an actual Tesla owner. You can probably find tidbits about owning a Tesla scattered all over the internet.

However, this book brings it all together in one Supercharged book for your reading pleasure and you can download it for FREE below. All I ask in return is that you follow @RizNwosu on Twitter, check out our Cyberbackpacks and subscribe to our mailing list below. I promise we will NOT bug or spam you with irrelevant nonsense.

So without further ado, here it is.

The Supercharged Life: The Ultimate Guide to Owning a Tesla

Table of Contents

  • Preamble
  •  

  • History of Tesla 
  • The Legacy of Nikola Tesla, Thomas Edison & the Origins of Electric Cars
    Elon Musk as a Visioner & Futurist

     

  • Electric Car Evolution 
  • ICE vs Hybrids vs Tesla
    Tesla Energy
    Supercharger Network & Servicing
    Unique Sales Model

     

  • Tesla’s Model Cars 
  • Roadster 
    Model  S 
    Model  X
    Model  3
    Model  Y
    Semi

     

  • Tesla and the Rest of the World 
  • Tesla Models as Status Symbol
    Car of the Future

     

  • Conclusion 

  • Preamble

    The first gasoline-fueled, four-stroke cycle engine was built in Germany as far as 1876; but the word EV (Electric Vehicle) is beginning to get as much buzz as gasoline-powered internal combustion engines turned heads as they screeched along the street in the early 19th century.

    In fact, electric vehicles have been around since the early 19th century as well, but for some reason, it never got off the ground, and the internal combustion engines.  When the steam engine was the hottest invention around the start of the 3rd industrial revolution, the internal combustion engine being tested in several use cases eventually took over and quickly rose to prominence as the engine of choice for machines. 

    This rapid adoption of the internal combustion engine (ICE) must have been very instrumental to the relegation of the earlier and more exciting technology of electric cars. It did not take too long before talk of the electric car started dying again. As it is with the animal kingdom where natural selection ensures that the strongest traits of a specie survives harsh conditions and take precedence in existence, the internal combustion engine survived and the electric vehicle and its battery died off. 

    Despite this turn of events in history, some inventors never gave up on electric cars still. Henry Ford began the drive with the mass production of vehicles and this saturation led to the dominance of the ICE. However, inventors such as Nikola Tesla and Thomas Edison did not give up on looking for the most efficient ways to utilize the technology of electricity still.

    Until the early 90s when Toyota Motor Corporation began to produce some Hybrid vehicles in trials, nobody saw the electric market as a viable one. Toyota was however smart enough not to go head-on into full electric vehicle production but they surely gave a great foundation which Tesla and other electric cars such as Chevy Bolt, Nissan Leaf, and others built upon. 

    Battery technology has always been a major impediment to the survival and proliferation of electric cars from time. The separate and sparse Research and Development (R&D) being undertaken by the different car companies such as Toyota, General Motors, Nissan, Volkswagen, Daimler AG, and so on, did not help in furthering advancements in battery technology. They mostly saw the venture as wasteful. 

    Also, there was too little collaboration between the technology companies in this space. Daimler AG would not share its hard-gotten inventions and patents in battery technology with Toyota and vice versa. The corporate competition rife between the major car manufacturers was their bane and it became a major fail for the electric car industry until Tesla entered the fray as an underdog.

    But thanks to Tesla’s unique battery technology; the revival of the Electric Vehicle (EV) was birthed. In its early days, Toyota invested a substantial sum into Tesla and they shared technology. However, it is worth noting also that Toyota and Panasonic were once partners in technology transfer – Tesla must have benefitted indirectly from this nonetheless.

    Since its founding in 2003, Tesla struggled to stay afloat and was not profitable for many years. The company almost went under before a Department of Energy intervention fund kept it and a few other car manufacturers afloat with a loan fund running into millions of dollars after the 2008 recession. Tesla kept on pushing until it made a profit in an industry largely dominated by giants such as Ford, Daimler AG, General Motors, Toyota, and Volkswagen - which have all been in operation for more than two centuries combined. 

    Though the electric vehicle has gone round and about, it has come to stay this time – thanks to Tesla’s constant improvements and making effort for it to be affordable to the average user over the years. It has shown itself as a dearth and a death knell for the many fossil fuel0dependent car manufacturers which have centered on the internal combustion engine for decades and made the world largely hooked to the more dangerous fuels.   

     

    History of Tesla 

    The Legacy of Nikola Tesla, Thomas Edison & the Origins of Electric Cars

    Electricity, as we now know, has been very vital to the growth of modern civilization and the 3rd & 4th waves of the Industrial Revolution. The industrialization which grew from the early 19th century and which led to a newly revolutionized workplace would not have been possible without electricity. 

    Just because electricity has an uncommon characteristic of being convertible into mechanical power and from mechanical power back to electricity, geniuses from the era of the 19th century began to harness it creatively. Naturally occurring fossil fuels, on its part, can be mined as crude oil, refined into gasoline and diesel, and harnessed by combustion engines into electricity which can then be culled for diverse human uses but the reverse chemistry was never developed at scale.

    Due to this fact, a lot of scientists and engineers saw electricity as a futuristic source of power. It would be hundreds of years before an efficient was found to re-harness free mechanical power from the wheels of an electric vehicle back to electricity – this development in the form of Regenerative Braking helped to forge the bedrock of modern electric cars aside from improvements made in battery technology and the rebirth of the EV. 

    General Motors introduced the EV-1 in 1996. It was however recalled and crushed in 1999 in a move that many refer to as the killing of the new electric car. Toyota on the other hand, despite their huge worldwide sales of the traditional gasoline-run vehicles, never looked back on the electric vehicle since the time they launched the Toyota Prius in 1997. In fact, Toyota Prius released more recent models of the car as late as 2011 while other major car manufacturers killed theirs. 

    And while the Chevy Volt initially saved the face of General Motors in the electric vehicle space, Tesla and other brands such as Nissan’s Leaf kept gaining more traction. As Tesla particularly was always struggling to meet up with the demand as it needed desperately to scale production and despite the original cost of the Model X being as high as $100,000 in 2015, customers still pre-ordered it. This showed a willingness to go long by Tesla enthusiasts and their trust in Tesla’s vision. 

    People across divides and cultures in the world may have had some bias for anything electricity, they kept on caring less for the source of such electricity generated as long as their own end of power consumption is clean. And so a lot of people loved electric cars still even if there are die-hard fans of gas-guzzling and roaring cars. 

    Tesla Motors, as an entity, came to be in 2003. Matin Eberhard and Marc Tarpenning, the engineers who figured out the earliest concept of Tesla cars, eventually became the CEO and the CFO of the company respectively. And though their original inspiration for naming the car was due to the icon largely acclaimed to be the scion of electricity, Nikola Tesla; Elon Musk, who is currently the face and the heart of Tesla Motors has often shown his preference for Thomas Edison, who worked very closely with Nikola Tesla and got electricity to be used by a vast majority of the world population. This little detail may seem irrelevant in the scheme of things, but it is actually very contributory to the philosophy which Elon runs Tesla Motors with. 

    While Elon cares about making Tesla Models the best electric vehicle, he also bends over backward to ensure that the cars are available at fair market prices and that the production reaches scale to satisfy market demand. 

    Roughly 1100 EV1's were produced by General Motors (GM) and leased to selected drivers at a monthly cost of $250 to $500.  Despite this ambitious effort, the economics of making electric cars was still not marketable. When the development cost was averaged among these leased cars, the cost of each came up to about $340,000. The electric car failed majorly the second time it was tried. 

    When GM finally called in the EV1 from drivers despite the drivers desperately wanting to keep the cars, angst rose again that that was the end of electric cars in the 21st century. 

    This was the first majorly tested concept of EVs in the United States, yet it failed. GM hauled the cars to Arizona and crushed them. This event was a major backbreaker to optimists who felt the electric vehicle has come to stay. And which renowned car manufacturer could better run these things, making the usage of the electric vehicle come to pass, if not General Motors? 

    But Tesla Motors would not give up. Tesla Motors was an electric car company built from a foundation; it had nothing else to fall back on as Ford, GM, Daimler AG, and others could have fallen back on the internal combustion engines if they failed. The only option to survive was to out-innovate itself and the incumbent car manufacturers.

     

    Elon Musk as a Visioner & Futurist

    It is not widely known that Elon Musk was not one of the original founders of Tesla. However, he was one of the earliest investors to back the electric car company. After existing Paypal, he risked it all, and invested $6.35 million in Tesla back in 2004; that allowed him to join the board and became hugely involved in the running of the company. 

    Like many things which Elon Musk has involved himself in previously, at Zip2 and PayPal, he came up with plans of elevating the current technology and engineering which Tesla ran. It had to be the best or nothing. Despite Elon’s super-optimistic plans not soothing some of his cofounders, they allowed his scaling plan to fly. 

    In the end, Elon was right. It took the original founders exiting the company for Musk to fully have control to move the company as his vision for electric vehicles allowed him though. The company finally began producing en masse but still not satisfactorily enough to meet fast-rising demand.  

    The marketing for these new sweethearts of the road running up to 200 miles per charge was top-notch. We must also not underscore unprecedented additions to the interior and exterior design, powertrain, improved stability, autopilot, and other innovations which were only delivered not only because of the R&D budget of Tesla alone but also due to the unrelenting drive for innovation in Elon’s genius itself. 

    Elon has not only shown himself to be a modern-day Nikola Tesla and Thomas Edison at Tesla Motor Corporation itself while hiring the best talent; he has also shown his mettle in other companies such as SpaceX, SolarCity, Boring Company, and a few other companies which he co-manages alongside Tesla.

    In an unprecedented move recently – one never tried by any other human – Elon Musk hauled a full-bodied Tesla Roadster into space to become the first car floating in space and orbiting the earth. As much as this must have been a marketing ploy or muscle-flexing run for what SpaceX and Tesla can do either as separate units or as a conglomerate, that single event points to even more possibilities of complementary services which will be offered by both Tesla and SpaceX in the near future.

    In the same vein, when the acquisition of SolarCity was completed, there was no doubt by those who understand Elon’s thought pattern well that he had plans which would eventually benefit Tesla greatly for SolarCity. Soon after the acquisition of SolarCity by Tesla, there was talk of using SolarCity’s advanced solar/renewable power technology to support Tesla’s Supercharger stations which are beginning to spread geometrically. After all, that would be the most economical thing to do – charging your car at home with free power. 

    In another groundbreaking and innovative trial, after releasing an open source engineering design of Hyperloop to the public, Elon Musk devised a Boring Company plan which could ferry a Tesla with an electric sled from New York to Washington DC in less than 30 minutes.

    The Boring Company undertook this project and began to secure the license to bore underground tunnels capable of delivering such service. This only implies that for Tesla owners, once these tunnels are ready, they can also beat heavy traffic between major routes and reduce travel times by slipping around cities at near-supersonic speeds with their Tesla cars. 

    There is an exclusivity angle to most of these innovations that Elon is building and slowly weaving together between these companies in connection with Tesla cars which those who are insightful enough to see the vision as clearly as Elon sees it, can only benefit from in the very near future.  

     

    Electric Car Evolution 

    Gasoline vs. Hybrid vs. Electric

    In a recent comprehensive and authoritative report on the EV demand and supply subject, Bernstein, a prominent Wall Street research firm, predicted that EVs could represent 40% of auto sales and 30% of the global car market in 20 years' time.

    While Japan has a burgeoning electric vehicle demand, China remains the largest consumer of electric cars in the world. This fact was no longer ignorable as Elon Musk, backed by the Chinese government, laid the ground for a 210-acre $2 billion Gigafactory in China in January 2019 in order to better feed off of the growing Chinese demand. The electric vehicle is fast climbing. The hybrid car market is picking up pace too, whereas, china recorded a significant drop in ICE cars in 2018. The gradual exit of conventional fossil-fueled cars is surely at hand.

    The basic principle and major advantage of hybrid vehicles are that the different motors work better at different speeds; the electric motor is more efficient at producing torque, and the combustion engine is better for maintaining high speed than typical electric motors. While a hybrid vehicle particularly uses two or more distinct types of power, Hybrid Cars and Electric Vehicles both utilize the unconventional fuel of electricity as the power source. 

    For some hybrid vehicles, the Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) drives an electric generator that powers an electric motor which then generates the electricity needed to power the electric motors at the wheels. Some submarines for instance use this technique of running the engines while on the surface while charging the batteries and then switching to batteries when submerged. 

    Switching from one form of mechanical energy supply to the wheels is automatically done and optimized for the best performance. Regenerative braking is also well harnessed in hybrid vehicles. If only a full-swing nexus exists between the advanced EV technology which Tesla now possesses and such to the advancement that hybrid vehicle manufacturers such as Toyota have made with vehicles such as Toyota Prius, perhaps we would realize the great power such a synchronization could bring.

    The proper timing of switching between the combustion engine and the EV powertrain as a hybrid vehicle speeds up yields a win-win in terms of energy efficiency and as such that advantage translates into greater fuel efficiency when fuel economics is brought up.

    A journalist from The New York Times recently drove a distance of 531 miles in a Model S from Lake Tahoe to Los Angeles while taking advantage of the Supercharger network along the route. Of course, owning one of the Tesla models ensure that you can access the high-speed Supercharger network for a fairer price than gasoline. Doing a simple cost analysis of accessing the Supercharger network for life and the high cost of fueling a car with gasoline gives more ground to opting for a Tesla model EV.

    Besides picturing what the energy consumption comparison is between the gasoline, hybrid, and electric-powered engines, it is also good to compare what one unit of energy costs in electric vehicles vs. what one unit is in gasoline. 

    In the northeastern United States, the residential rate for electric power is $0.10/kWh for generation and $0.10/kWh for delivery of the same power and that makes a total of $0.20/kWh. Thus, the cost of electricity is $0.055/MJ while the cost per road distance is then $0.029204437/mile for an average electric car. 

    Now to the common internal combustion engine such as the Honda Civic, assuming fueling costs $3.50/gal of gasoline, generating a dealer mileage cost of $0.03106855/mile.

    The net difference in cost savings shows that $0.001864113 can be saved per mile driving an electric vehicle. Understandably, a number of factors could alter gasoline or electricity prices; but on average, the energy pricing will tend towards the example shown.

    However, one very important point to note for Tesla vehicles is that some of them come with free charging at the milling supercharger stations spotting the United States up to a specified limit. In essence, this could amount to zero charging cost for Tesla owners who depend on the Supercharger network for a certain time. 

     

    Tesla Energy

    Tesla is no longer just a car company. It is now more of electric power on wheels. No doubt Tesla is looking into the sustainability of its electric cars already; as electric cars get more prevalent in supply, there will need for more affordable means to power them if it is ever going to take over from internal combustion engine cars. And so, Tesla is transitioning not just the household power grid off fossil fuels and onto renewable but also preparing the good ground for the possibility of adequately charging Tesla cars from the home, with renewable energy.

    Certainly, we will need a lot of energy to power electric cars if everybody starts driving them. Tesla is thus slowly creating the infrastructure necessary to generate, store and power both homes and Tesla cars with renewable energy.

    Tesla Energy was launched in 2015 and it is rapidly becoming a globally recognized leader in both commercial and residential renewable energy solutions.

    The Powerwall (for residential energy) and the Powerpack (for commercial energy) were the first products of Tesla Energy in the form of modular batteries. These special batteries are not only the world’s cheapest batteries; they are also the world’s most efficient ones.

    Batteries are arguably the most important part of the renewable energy revolution. Batteries have been the major impediment the electric car revolution faced for over a century since the concept was first dug up. Tesla motors vastly improving battery technology has contributed immensely to its rise as compared to other vehicle manufacturers which have tried. 

    Batteries like the ones that Tesla has designed serve to store this energy as it is being generated and disperse it when needed. And so beyond batteries, Tesla is now a world leader in solar energy while developing a robust ecosystem around power use and management.

    In the same vein, some of the most popular emerging sources of renewable energy are known to be solar panels and wind turbines. These technologies however do not produce a blitz of energy when compared to fossil fuels and may not produce power consistently, but they have continued to improve at a smashing rate. 

    In November 2016, shortly after the acquisition of SolarCity was announced, Tesla unveiled its Solar Roof product. Tesla finally keyed into the Power Production phase of the energy ecosystem up from just Power Utilization. Integrating solar panels into a roofing product looks great, and it means the functionality of a roof and solar energy can be intertwined in a single purchase. Tesla became a renewable energy titan overnight. The combination of bringing batteries and solar panels in-house opens up incredible synergies in Tesla’s business. 

    Statistics have however shown that, so far, most customers who purchase electric vehicles usually want batteries and solar panels too. It is also estimated that Tesla already has some of the world’s highest retail sales per square foot of solar panel sales and that number is only going up as the company matures and expands its product lineup. Sales of these solar roofs and storage batteries are expected to ramp gradually throughout 2019 even as Tesla scales production the more.

    It would therefore not be out of place for a Tesla owner to purchase some of these products offered by Tesla Energy such as the special and durable Solar Roof, Powerwall, or the Powerpack in order to better enjoy their Tesla driving experience.

     

    Supercharger Network & Servicing

    Supercharger Network

    More than 12,000 Supercharger stations are currently available throughout the world, and that is an impressive number to serve a major chunk of the Tesla car out there. To enhance ease of access, Supercharger stations are open for charging 24 hours a day and are conveniently located near desirable amenities like restaurants, shops, and WiFi hotspots. Each station contains multiple Superchargers so that even if there are other Tesla cars willing to charge, you can get a charging slot and get back on the road quickly.

    Superchargers also deliver energy rapidly, and gradually slow down as the battery fills up so that they can quickly get Tesla owners back on their journey. Normally, your Tesla vehicle automatically alerts you via the display or through the owner app when it has enough energy to continue on the trip. So, charging above 80% isn’t typically necessary especially when you are in a hurry.

    It is just proper that Tesla owners pay for energy delivered to the vehicle remotely as many of these supercharger stations are set up by private entities called Charging partners. It is therefore not economically sensible to put the power they supply up for free. The power generated at these supercharger stations is therefore priced on a per kilowatt-hour (kWh) basis for the entire global network. 

    A special type of supercharger named V3 will be publicly available in North America in April 2019 and continue to ramp up V3 installations through 2019 globally. The V3 Superchargers will be capable of delivering peak charge rates up to 250kW. However, all Tesla models will benefit from the elimination of power sharing in V3s architecture. The peak rate each vehicle achieves will vary with the size and age of the battery pack, state of charge, and ambient temperature conditions.

    While some Tesla cars have free access to the Superchargers, other Tesla vehicles require a fee to Supercharge. Where possible, owners are billed per kWh (kilowatt-hour), which is the fairest and simple method; other areas are billed for supercharging per minute. When billing per minute, however, there are two tiers of supercharging linked to charging speeds to take note of called Tier 1 and Tier 2.

    Tier 1 charging applies while cars are charging at or below 60 kW and Tier 2 applies while cars are charging above 60 kW. Tier 1 is half the cost of Tier 2. Tier 1 also applies anytime a Tesla owner is sharing Supercharger power with another car and while a Tesla vehicle is not sharing charging power, Tier 2 rates would apply.

    There is obviously no need to fret about charging while on a long trip as Tesla owners can find current and existing Supercharger stations by merely using the interactive map on the display screen. The built-in Trip Planner automatically routes your itinerary to link with the nearest Superchargers on the way to your destination.

    So, just by peering into your car's Navigation system, Supercharger locations are displayed to assist with route planning - the rest of the decision rests with you. Your Tesla’s Navigation will also display the maximum power output of each Supercharger location as you check it on the display screen. Likewise, average pricing information and specific pricing for each Supercharger location are shown on the vehicle touchscreen. 

    Your vehicle's Navigation will automatically route to the nearest entrance depending on how much your vehicle needs charging. You can actually zoom in on the map to find the exact location of the station as well. Superchargers in urban areas deliver an average of 72 kilowatts (kW) of power at any point in time, even if another Tesla begins charging in an adjacent stall.

    This creates a predictable charging experience with an average Supercharging session lasting around 45-50 minutes in city centers. The basic cost of Supercharging across supercharger stations remains $ 0.28 per kWh. 

    At the supercharger station, each charge post is labeled with a number and letter - e.g. 1A, 1B, 2A, 2B, therefore you should select a charge post with a unique number that is not currently connected to a vehicle. 

    Once a Supercharger network is located, you simply just park and plug in your vehicle using the connector at the Supercharger post. The connectors are designed in such a way that the plugs stick into the electric socket on the car. While your car is plugged into the supercharger feed, the vehicle's charge port LED will flash green to indicate that charging has started. It is all designed such that you can monitor the charging progress on your instrument panel.

    Your vehicle and the Superchargers communicate to select the appropriate charging rate for your car. Supercharging rate may vary due to battery charge level, current use of the Supercharger station, and extreme climate conditions connected particularly to battery temperature and a few other conditions.

    Ultimately, your vehicle charges faster when the battery is at a lower state of charge, therefore, charging slows down as it fills up. Depending on your destination, charging to completely full is often not necessary – once your battery level hits 80%, you should be good to go.

    On completion of charging, your charging cost is automatically billed to your Tesla Account, as long as you have a payment method pre-selected in your account. You can as well view your Supercharger history attached with downloadable invoices of each charge. Understanding the way Supercharging billing works will also help you in evaluating whether you have any free annual Tesla credits to use for refills at supercharging stations.

    Some Tesla Model S and Model X which were ordered before 2nd November 2018 come with an additional 400kWh or roughly 1,000 miles of Supercharger credits. However, a small fee will apply for usage above the complimentary annual credits for Supercharging. Also, supercharger credits will replenish automatically on the anniversary date of your Tesla’s delivery or a legal verifiable ownership transfer. 

    Naturally, the battery charge rate of most batteries is decreased when the battery is too cold. There is also a possibility that the peak-charging rate of the battery of your Tesla EV may decrease slightly over time after a large number of high-rate charging sessions- such as those at Superchargers. When batteries are also nearly full and battery age is old, the charging rate decreases as the conditions change. However, these changes in the condition of the battery may only increase total Supercharger time by a few minutes over time; hence it is nothing to worry about.

    Overall, if you have access to free/renewable energy generation at home, or can access cheaper electricity, it is best to alternate this with supercharging. Charging where you park is one of the best ways to live with a Tesla and there is no need to travel to get a full charge.

    Therefore to ensure maximum driving range and battery safety, Tesla owners are advised to interchange between home charging and charging at Supercharger stations. Tesla recommends using an easily-installable Level 2 charging solution at home or work whenever possible. Therefore, Superchargers are ideal for road trips where you will be away from home or whenever other means to charge are not available.

     

    Servicing

    Whereas vehicles with internal combustion engines require more frequent service for oil changes and routine maintenance on engine components and other related systems, Tesla's website recommends the owner bring the vehicle in for service once a year or every 12,000 miles

    Locations for sales and service spots in Europe were announced in a letter to Tesla owners as far back as May 2008. Shortly after, an additional 15 service centers in the United States' major metropolitan locations were also added to the teeming service centers and they continue to spread across the United States and other parts of the world where Tesla is in demand. There are also other dedicated service centers that exist for solving all manner of servicing or fixing problems with Tesla vehicles. 

    The uniqueness of the Tesla vehicle design must have necessitated the need for specially trained technicians. Tesla, therefore, created a Mobile Service Unit that dispatches company-trained technicians to customers' homes, offices, or other locations in case the owner is experiencing problems with any model. 

    Tesla charges the customer according to the distance the service unit needs to travel: one US dollar per mile roundtrip with a 100-dollar minimum. Technicians drive company vans equipped with numerous tools and testing equipment to do "in the field" repairs, enhancements, and software upgrades. Tesla debuted this home service/house call approach in the spring of 2009 when the company announced a recall due to a manufacturing problem in the Lotus assembly plant, which also affected the Lotus Elise and other models from the British sports car maker.

    In 2007, Tesla announced plans to build additional service centers over the following few years to support sales of its next vehicle, the Model S sports sedan. The first Tesla service center, in Los Angeles, California, was opened on Santa Monica Boulevard on May 1st, 2008. Tesla publicly opened their second showroom and service area in Menlo Park, California on July 22nd, 2008. The Menlo Park location is also the final assembly area for Tesla Roadsters. Tesla also operates service centers in New York City, Miami, Chicago, and Seattle.

     

    Unique Sales Model

    Tesla has earned a notorious reputation for sticking with its own sales model. It is not considered totally out of place for Tesla not to trust the traditional car dealership to handle its precious cars, but an even more plausible reason was given by Tesla when it was queried as to why it won't leave its cars in the hands of dealers. If Tesla does not do advertisements, it maintains that it won't allow other companies to do adverts for them. Tesla would not outsource their sales and this is why you have never seen a regular Tesla car advert on TV.

    After all, gadget makers such as Apple long have directly sold their devices - Macs, iPhones, and iPads exclusively in Apple stores and via pre-ordering, so why can’t Tesla adopt the same model for their cars? If Apple does not depend on the old dealership model, despite not blocking dealers actually, perhaps the same model could work well for Tesla which was trying to differentiate itself and its brand from the band of other car manufacturers. 

    Tesla has therefore spent heavily building new stores in major market locations and spots around the world. In states such as Texas, car dealers and some automakers opposed and for some time successfully lobbied to block Tesla from directly selling cars to customers. Tesla in turn responded by building showrooms where customers can learn about the cars but can’t buy them in the store except if ordered online or in other places. 

    A Tesla official, Todd Maron, once appeared at the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) answering questions about why Tesla needs to sell its cars itself; the Tesla official gave a detailed explanation of Tesla’s market philosophy, before the general council.

    Firstly, Tesla believes more in the Go-to-the-customer approach to sales and when doing that, the purpose of joining a dealership is mostly defeated. Traditional independent dealerships are usually built on large plots of land in out-of-the-way locations whereas Tesla stores in contrast are strategically situated in areas that have a lot of foot traffic. Interestingly, some of these locations with high foot traffic are in malls and city centers where Tesla secures stores that benefit from being smaller and more intimate.

    There is a primary thing that a potential Tesla customer usually needs to learn about - both Tesla and electric cars are a new technology which is still being constantly improved and they have to be handled the same way. Therefore, this created a need for Tesla stores to be both education centers and also situated in convenient locations. Apple, by Steve Jobs’ whims, once used this same tactic to educate its customers about the company’s unusual gadgets at its specialty stores.

    For Tesla, that potential Tesla customers come into Tesla stores to learn about the technology reflects a metric in customer enthusiasm and fulfillment. It is not rare to see representatives spending hours with customers showing them where they can charge Tesla cars, how to get tax rebates or other government electric car incentives they might qualify for, and how much they can expect to pay to maintain electric vehicles versus gasoline cars, as well as the utility value. 

    Likewise, Tesla prefers that their customers be able to customize their cars by picking paint colors and choosing accessories while traditional car dealers focus instead on inventory where all they do is move a car out as quickly as it gets onto a lot. In fact, it has been discovered that a lot of customers did not mind the waiting period that it took them to get their car delivered because they at least know it will be customized to their taste.

    In his appearance at the FTC, Todd Maron also quipped that there is just no way that dealers would be able to make money with the way their marketing principle is set up. Dealers mark up cars they sell to make a profit; allowing such to happen with Tesla car sales will make Tesla even more expensive for the potential customer to buy. Whereas with direct sales through Tesla channels, a customer could just go online, or to a neighboring state, and buy a Tesla car without the additional markup.

    Another reasonable notion that supports Tesla’s drive for their kind of marketing is the gas conflict of interest that dealers are bound to face when pitching the cars to customers. Existing franchise dealers have a fundamental conflict of interest between selling gasoline cars, which constitute the vast majority of their business and selling the new technology of electric cars. It is virtually impossible for them to showcase the advantages of going electric without simultaneously undermining their traditional and major business. This would leave Tesla cars without a fair opportunity to make their case to an unfamiliar public.

    If Tesla is striving to replace gas-powered cars with its electric cars, it means that it will have to promote its electric powertrain models as superior to those with internal combustion engines. But as the vast majority of cars sold through dealers are gas-powered cars, Tesla believes it will be difficult for the dealers to out-promote Tesla EVs as against the more common and familiar internal combustion engines. Tesla, therefore, is of the belief that dealers wouldn’t be the best advocates for the electric cars that Tesla needs.

    Originally, The FTC’s position was that states should not block direct car sales, but with Tesla’s optimal defense of its position, it was no harder for the FTC to allow Tesla’s unique sales policy to fly.

     

    Tesla’s Model Cars 

    Roadster 

    Tesla Roadster is an electric-powered, four-seat, open-top, all-wheel drive sports car. Tesla Roadster is also the quickest car in the world. It began production on March 17, 2008, after Tesla had toyed with the idea and production of their first car, in conjunction with the Lotus Engineering company. Tesla Roadster was thus the first product to be produced solely and shipped by Tesla. 

    As an all-electric supercar, Roadster maximizes the potential of aerodynamic engineering—with record-setting dexterity and performance, and efficiency.

    A lightweight, removable Glass Roof which is unconventionally stored in the trunk, switches up the experience of driving a Roadster by granting an open-air, convertible driving experience as well.

    Roadster Specs:

    Drivetrain 

    The Roadster boasts an All-Wheel Drive with a 375 volt AC induction air-cooled electric motor which has an output of 248 peak horsepower (185kW).

    Battery 

    Depending upon how far the battery has been discharged and what source is being used to charge the 160 Ah batteries, the custom microprocessor-controlled 6,831 lithium-ion celled battery can be fully recharged with electricity in your home in as little as 3.5 hours. However, time spent at a supercharger station is significantly lower.

    Brakes 

    The Anti-lock Braking System (ABS) brakes automatically sense when a tire has stopped rotating under extreme braking and will modulate the brake pressure to allow the tire to rotate. This increases the vehicle's ability to turn while braking and generally the Roadster’s stability and traction.

    Suspension  

    The Sport trim features an adjustable custom-tuned suspension, forged alloy wheels, and performance-ready tires. 

    The Roadster uses a resin-bonded and riveted extruded aluminum monocoque chassis which is aided by the four-wheel independent double-wishbone suspension. 

    Comfort/Convenience

    The improved seat comfort and internal finished premium leather seats are available in nine colors or a combination of colors and the leather sport seats with lumbar support are heated as well.  

    Other convenience features also include standard air-conditioning as well as new power control hardware which enables spirited driving in exceptionally hot climates.

    Seating 

    The Roadster is also the first supercar to set every performance record and still comfortably sit as many as four people. 

    Acceleration 

    The Roadster’s acceleration time and handling rivals supersede that of many supercars. In 1.9 seconds, it will peak at 0-60 mph in 4.2 sec 0-100 minutes and also achieve 1/4 mile in 8.8 seconds.

    Wheels  

    The Roadster boasts sturdy 16" Aluminum Forged wheels.

    Wheel Torque 

    The Sport trim's motor, with its hand-wound stator, produces a whopping 10,000 Nm.

    Audio / Entertainment 

    With its 7-speaker Alpine sound system, the sports car is complete with subwoofers and sound dampening as well as a Bluetooth cellular phone integration.

    Safety/Security   

    Front-impact airbags for the driver and passenger have been designed to protect the head during a frontal crash. Seatbelt pretensioners automatically tighten the seatbelts to place the occupant in the optimal seating position during a collision.

    The vehicle is equipped with a means of anticipating and/or detecting unwanted vehicle intrusion. The vehicle is equipped with an ignition disable device that will prevent the engine from starting if the correct original manufacturer key is not used.

    Dimension 

    The Tesla Roadster is cute enough with a Wheelbase measuring 2,352 mm (92.6 in); the Length of 3,946 mm (155.4 in) and the Width measuring 1,873 mm (73.7 in). It stands at 1,127 mm (44.4 in) high while it has a Curb weight of 1,305 kg (2,877 lb).

    Top Speed 

    In a free-range, the Roadster achieves a top speed of over 250 mph.

    Range

    The Roadster set the first world distance record of 311 mi for a production electric car on a single charge with an average speed of 25 mph on October 27, 2009, at the Global Green Challenge in outback Australia. 

    However, as of March 2010, the Roadster has since reached a 620-mile range in subsequent tests. 

    Displays/Navigation  

    The infotainment group includes satellite and HD radio. There is also an accessible large touch screen navigation system which is the back-up camera enabled. 

    Base Price 

    $200,000

    Base Reservation 

    Potential customers can reserve a Roadster for $50,000

    Founders Series Price 

    $250,000

    Founders Series Reservation 

    A Founder Series reservation is also available at $250,000 but only for the first 1,000 reservations.

    Charging

    The Roadster comes with an optional Mobile Connector which allows an owner to charge from any available 110v or 220v electrical outlet.

    The proprietary inlet provided is the 16.8 kW (70 A 240 V) with HPWC outlet as well as the SAE J1772-2009 adapters for domestic AC sockets.

    Other Accessories/Features 

    Other options include power windows and remote keyless entry, Mobile Connector for travel charging. There is also a front fascia and rear diffuser. The Roadster also comes in metallic and premium paint options and microfiber cloth seats, a matching body-colored carbon fiber hardtop with a full headliner.

    Supercharging 

    Access to supercharger stations is Pay Per Use – except the Tesla owner has free supercharger credit.

    Model  S 

    Tesla has shown so far that gasoline engines aren't the only way for people to have fun behind the wheel of a car. The Model S remains an impressive alternative to gasoline-powered vehicles when it comes to long-distance usability while providing that same fun behind the wheels. 

    The Model S is both efficient and ferocious, with the highest-performing version capable of 0-60-mph in 2.4 seconds, according to Tesla. If anything, the Model S aptly named Ludicrous Mode offers a Zero-G acceleration.

    As catchy as the cabin interior is, buyers/owners are not hesitating to choose the Model S for the sumptuous cluster of modern driving tech and comfort that it offers. From the semi-autonomous driving mode to the remote-controlled driving feature, to the largest display and navigation screen in the vehicle, there seems to be plenty more on offer to attract potential customers to the Model S as well.

    Although the Model S has sparked a nationwide conversation about the safety of partially autonomous vehicles as it has been reported to catch fire after certain types of high-speed impacts, its safety credibility was further buoyed by decent crash-test results from the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS). The accidents must have been a rarity afterall; knowing that car fires aren't uncommon in accidents -  either in electric or gasoline-powered vehicles.

    Model S Specs:

    Drivetrain

    With an electric motor dedicated to each of the front and rear axles, the drivetrain is capable of a 1-speed auto transmission, 518 Horsepower. The Model S offers full-time all-wheel drive. 

    Brakes

    The four-wheel anti-lock disc brakes come with an electronic parking brake assist. The anti-lock brakes (ABS) brakes and driveline Traction control automatically sense when a tire has stopped rotating under extreme braking, and the central system will modulate the brake pressure to allow the tire to rotate a little to avoid skidding. This capability increases the vehicle’s ability to make a turn while braking as well as other conditions with standard automated emergency braking. 

    Stability 

    Tesla's chassis being drawn towards the ground by the weight of the battery pack helps it yield a low center of gravity and an evenly distributed weight from the front to the rear. So aside from the Electronic stability and Traction control feature, this attribute helps it achieve optimal stability. 

    The stability control system however automatically senses when the vehicle handling limits have been exceeded and reduces engine power and/or applies select brakes on the respective wheels to help prevent the driver from losing control of the vehicle. 

    Comfort / Convenience

    The Model S boasts a HEPA air filtration system. Faux-leather- and faux suede-wrapped dash with a generally minimalist design complements the center armrest and has two cup holders. Driver and front passenger heated-cushion – heated seatback and front seats. Heated mirrors, heated steering wheel, as well as driver and passenger lumbar support also come with this range.

    Adaptive cruise control with the semi-autonomous driving model is also available while parking assist, front air conditioning, rear air conditioning, and the dual-zone automatic are readily available. 

    Seating 

    This model sits up to 5 Adults. The seats are 12-way power adjustable, front-heated, and with a memory of driver's profile 

    Acceleration 

    It can attain 0-60 mph in 2.4 seconds 

    Range

    The model S achieves a range of 315 miles with a fully charged battery.

    Top Speed  

    Model S has a top speed of 150 mph

    Wheels 

    Two options of either the 19” or 21” Performance wheels is available with the Model S

    Safety

    Advanced active safety technology helps deploy the front-impact airbags for the driver and passenger. The head is primarily protected in this case of a frontal crash. Side impact airbags for the front seats have been designed to protect the torso during a side impact collision too.

    Overhead airbags are used to protect the occupant's heads in the event of a side collision or rollover and knee airbags help to protect the occupant's lower body from serious injury in the event of an accident. 

    The seatbelt pretensioner also automatically tightens the seatbelt to place the occupant in the optimal seating position during a collision. Standard lane-departure warning ensures the driver is alerted anytime the vehicle is moving off a particular lane.

    Security 

    Location-aware automatic garage door opener ensures that owners are able to drive in securely into the garage. It is also equipped with a means of anticipating and/or detecting unwanted vehicle intrusion. The vehicle is equipped with an ignition-disable device that will prevent the engine from starting until the correct original manufacturer key is used.

    Warranty  

    The basic vehicle warranty is 4 years, while the battery & powertrain option lasts for as long as 8 years.

    Capacities 

    Its sloped roofline cleverly hides a rear lift-gate that opens up to reveal a huge 30 cubic feet worth of cargo space.

    Displays/Navigation 

    The Model S possesses a 17" Touchscreen with an onboard map and navigation. The display is Wi-Fi and cellular internet capable with 2 or 4 USB ports docking for 2 smartphones, for media, power, and a center console with storage.

    Audio / Entertainment – 

    The custom audio system features an  11 speakers sound system capable of AM/FM/HD/Satellite-prep, seek-scan Radio. With the XM satellite radio capability, Bluetooth hands-free calling, media streaming, and FM radio connectivity are available. 

    Charging 

    Compatible with Tesla Wall Connectors, a 20-foot mobile connector with a storage bag is packaged with the Model S on picking exactly. A 240-volt NEMA 1415 adapter and 120-volt NEMA 5 adapter are both available.

    Supercharging 

    Access to Tesla's global Supercharger network for a fee.

    Other Features/Accessories 

    Other accessories and features include Keyless entry, Mobile app remote control, Voice-activated controls, and three-position dynamic LED turning lights. Others include LED fog lamps, power-folding heated side mirrors, and LED ambient interior lighting. Back-up camera,  Auto-dimming mirrors, and One-touch power windows. The lighted door handles retract into the body as the driver or passengers move near the door. 12-volt outlet, public charging adapter, three-second row LATCH attachments for child seat installations as well as rain-sensing Windshield wipers were part of the accessories.

     

    Model  X 

    The Tesla Model X battery-powered luxury crossover vehicle is now in its 4th model year having been introduced as far back as 2015. Not much has changed for the 2018 model year except that the Autopilot system demands that drivers pay closer attention to driving. This must have been a result o a few past Tesla accidents that were related to drivers totally depending on the autopilot system.  

    For now, at least, Tesla's costly but compelling Model X is the only long-range battery-powered family crossover SUV available. Apart from the arguably gimmicky Falcon Wing back doors, which are quite unusual, it provides a pleasant motoring experience. In addition to emitting no pollutants, the battery-powered Model X earns the top rating for energy efficiency.

    Despite some of the feature changes, the Model X is readily recognizable as a Tesla because of its flat, grille-free front view. The P version also features significant upgrades to its electronics systems.

    For all the options, however, the Autopilot is optional at just an additional $5,000.

    Model X Specs:

    Drivetrain

    All-wheel drive is standard in the 3 variants (75D, P100D, and 100D) offered, with different battery capacities and operating ranges. Each is powered by dual electric motors (one for each axle), which contribute to driving all four wheels. 

    In 75D and P100D models, the two motors are each rated at 193 kilowatts (259 horsepower).

    The high-performance 100D gets a vastly more powerful rear motor, rated at 375 kilowatts (503 horsepower). 100D AWD, similar, but with a higher-rated battery pack (100 kWh) is $96,000 while P100D AWD priced at $140,000, gets the powertrain with the quickest acceleration. 

    Comfort / Convenience 

    A heated steering wheel and heated seats throughout the cabin coupled with a center armrest bearing two cup holders give a feeling of comfort. The Model X also boasts a HEPA air filtration system. LED ambient interior lighting

    Stability

    Because the Model X is a heavyweight, checking in at well over 2.5 tons, its heft can be noticeable as the electronic systems strive to maintain unmarred stability. Weight distribution at an even 50/50 (front/rear) helps with handling. 

    With Electronic stability and traction control, Model X owners and riders can look forward to a remarkably smooth, quiet, and comfortable ride, complemented by excellent road-hugging. 

    Suspension

    Tesla's standard air suspension copes well with a variety of pavement surfaces ranging from smooth to rough.

    Braking 

    Four-wheel antilock disc brakes are present with electronic parking brake assist.

    Acceleration & Range 

    The Model X has been shaped for efficiency, reducing its aerodynamic drag coefficient to an efficient 0.25. 

    Acceleration ranks as remarkable for a family crossover such as the Model X. Essentially, it performs like a taller and bigger Model S sedan, with electric motors providing nearly-instantaneous torque. 

    The 75D model contains a 75 kilowatt-hour (kWh) battery pack, with a range of 237 miles and 0-60 mph acceleration in 4.9 seconds. The 100D version upgrades to a 100-kWh battery pack, promising a 295-mile range and 4.7-second acceleration to 60 mph. 

    The P100D is a considerably more costly performance model which also holds a 100-kWh battery pack but gets a more powerful electric motor. The range is estimated at 289 miles, while acceleration from 0 to 60 mph is achieved in as little as 2.9 seconds when the mode selector is switched to the aptly named Ludicrous position. 

    Seating  

    Depending on what owners want, the Model X can be fitted for either five, six, or seven-passenger seating. Adding a two-seat third row for seven-passenger capacity is available for an additional $3,000 while it is $6,000 for the six-seat version. 

    Wheels 

    The massive 20” or 22” tires help provide an appealing balance between tenacious grip and quiet travel. It allows the Model X to remain predictably flat as it navigates through bends and corners.

    Weight 

    The Model X weighs 5,531 lbs which are relatively light for an SUV

    Cargo 

    The cargo room totaling 88 cubic feet which comes with the Model X is impressive and good enough considering the vehicle's rounded shape for the five-passenger configuration. 

    Warranty 

    The basic vehicle warranty is 4 years, while the battery & powertrain option lasts for as long as 8 years.

    Charging

    Compatible with Tesla Wall Connectors, a 20-foot mobile connector with a storage bag is packaged with the Model X on picking exactly. A 240-volt NEMA 14-50 adapter and a 120-volt NEMA 5-15 adapter and charger are both available. An automatic charge port door comes concealed in the rear driver-side tail lamp.

    Safety/ Security 

    Tesla's Model X has earned the highest crash-test ratings from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, with an overall five-star rating and five stars in each separate category. Tesla itself has tagged the Model X to be the safest SUV ever.

    Advanced active safety technology helps manage the automatic deployment of eight airbags (knee, head, front, side, etc) spotting the interior of the car. 

    Rollover crash sensor and the Crash sensor for high voltage disconnect are also present in the Model X. There is also the option of selecting either the two-second row LATCH attachments for child seat installations in 5-seat configuration or the Four LATCH attachments for child seat installations in 6-seat and 7-seat configurations, both with rear door child safety locks.

    In the interior, a manual release mechanism is available for all doors, front trunk, and rear cargo area, and an acoustic front-row safety belt warning for the driver to belt up is present. The Anti-theft alarm and immobilizer system warn the owner in case there is a burgling attempt on the car.

    Audio / Entertainment 

    A custom audio system featuring 17 speakers allows for an optimum sound experience. On-demand & internet radio capability allows for FM radio and Bluetooth connectivity with XM satellite radio capability. There are two USB ports present as owners may deem for use as they wish.

    Displays/Navigation 

    The huge 17-inch touchscreen also allows the user to dominate control of the vehicle with unhindered access to the front compartment. The Model X has onboard maps and navigation, Wi-Fi, cellular internet capability, Bluetooth hands-free calling, and media streaming. 

    Other Accessories/Features

    The Model X benefits from a light and airy cabin that feels quite tall. The leather and suede surface trim, dark wood, and matte silver convey a premium ambiance complementary to Tesla's lofty price. 

    Keyless entry, voice-activated controls, largest glass panoramic windshield in production,  2” receiver for hitch-mounted bike and ski carriers, one-touch power windows, a 12-way power adjustable, heated front seats with memory and driver profile as well as three-position dynamic LED turning and fog lights are some of the additional features which distinguish the car.  

    Doors

    Rather than the conventional side-hinged back doors, the large Falcon Wing doors spread out like an angel’s wing and hang notably over the car’s exterior features. The wing’s large side panels pivot upward from the roof's center when opened. 

    For the front doors, chrome door handles extend automatically as the driver approaches and retract flush to the body when the car is moving.

    Supercharging  

    Access to Tesla's global Supercharger network for a fee.

     

    Model  3 

    The Tesla Model 3 is one of the most anticipated vehicles of all time. The Palo Alto-based Tesla Motors received nearly 400,000 pre-orders and reservations worth about $10 billion, just by showing off a prototype.

    The Tesla Model 3 was originally intended to be an electric car for the masses; the Model 3 has instead found itself in position as an all-electric alternative to compact luxury sedans. The promised $35,000 Model 3 Standard Range was finally announced in February 2019, albeit was finally delivered at a price of $36,200. It still came out as the cheapest Tesla car ever offered to customers. 

    This would mean that the all-electric Model 3 is what electric-car fans from all over the globe have been waiting for since the launch of the original Roadster. This would also mean that Tesla is finally approaching its dream of producing affordable cars. 

    The Model 3 comes in 4 variants too, aptly named after their battery performance rating (Standard Range, Mid Range, Long Range, and Performance).

    The Enhanced Autopilot package, which includes Tesla's cool semi-autonomous driving mode, is available in all versions.

    Model 3 Specs:

    Drivetrain 

    The Model X carries a Dual Motor All-Wheel Drive. 

    As with most other EVs, the Model 3 gains speed smoothly and almost silently, with the electric motor providing a strong swell of power right from a dead stop to make the car feel very responsive at lower speeds. 

    Battery

    Standard Range Battery: $36,200

    Mid Range Battery: $45,200

    Long Range Battery: $52,200

    Performance: $63,200

    Wheel 

    The wheel comes in 18" and 20” gray aluminum with summer and winter capable tires. 

    Brakes

    Anti-lock brakes (ABS) brakes automatically sense when a tire has stopped rotating under extreme braking and will modulate the brake pressure to allow the tire to rotate. This increases the vehicle's ability to turn while braking.

    Range

    The Model 3 has an average range of 310 miles at full charge. 

    Steering

    The steering is accurate and well weighted, with three different settings that adjust the level of steering as the driver wants.

    Stability control

    Stability control automatically senses when the vehicle handling limits have been exceeded and reduces engine power and/or applies select brakes to help prevent the driver from losing control of the vehicle.

    The Model 3 carries its heavy battery under the floor, resulting in a low center of gravity, and it has the front-to-rear weight distribution of a sports car. These two attributes help it change direction crisply and feel planted and stable in the corners. 

    Comfort/Convenience

    A fixed glass Sunroof is present while the driver and front passenger heated cushion, heated front seats, and driver and passenger lumbar support are also available for maximum comfort. 

    Front air conditioning which is dual-zone automatic ensures that optimum climate control is achieved within the car.

    Weight 

    The Model 3 weighs 4,072 lbs.

    Acceleration 

    The rear-wheel-drive Long Range model sprints from 0 to 60 mph in 5.1 seconds while the Performance version and its two motors combine to make 450 horsepower and shoot the compact EV from 0 to 60 mph in 3.2 seconds.

    Safety 

    Front-impact airbags for the driver and passenger have been designed to protect the head during a frontal crash. Side impact airbags for the front seats have been designed to protect the torso during a side impact collision. Overhead airbags are used to protect the occupant's heads in the event of a side collision or rollover. Knee airbags help to protect the occupant's lower extremities from serious injury in the event of an accident.

    Seatbelt pretensioners automatically tighten seatbelts to place the occupant in the optimal seating position during a collision.

    The Model 3 has been tested by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration and received a perfect five-star score; the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety hasn't released its findings. Tesla offers a fair number of driver-assistance features as standard, but more advanced systems such as lane-keeping assist and adaptive cruise control are only included in the costly Enhanced Autopilot package. The Autopilot feature has the capability of automatically switching lanes among many other driver assistance/protective capabilities.

    Standard automated emergency braking. Standard lane-departure warning. Available adaptive cruise control

    Security 

    The vehicle is equipped with a means of anticipating and/or detecting unwanted vehicle intrusion. The vehicle is equipped with an ignition disable device that will prevent the engine from starting if the correct original manufacturer key is not used.

    Seating/ Capacity

    Cargo 15 cu ft

    The car can sit 5 Adults comfortably with a manual seat and steering adjustment. 

    A 12-way power adjustable heated front seat allows for folding the 60/40 split-folding rear seats. Unlike many other sedans, the Model 3's seat backs fold flat, too, this alone expands the trunk considerably and provides an uninterrupted cargo floor for hauling large items. 

    Top Speed 

    Model 3 has achieved a top speed of 150 mph in tests conducted by both Tesla and car reviewers.

    Audio / Entertainment 

    Premium audio – 14 speakers, 1 subwoofer, and 2 amps deliver an upgraded audio and immersive sound system. Music and media are also available over Bluetooth.  

    Display/Navigation 

    The Model 3 is shockingly simple inside, with nearly everything controlled by the monolithic LCD monitor with a center console with storage, 4 USB ports, and docking for 2 smartphones.  

    The overall effect of the display is futuristic. The massive 15.0-inch touchscreen controls nearly all of the car's functions; well organized, responsive to user inputs, and easy to use. 

    Standard maps and navigation with Satellite-view maps running live traffic visualization and other navigation tools are present. Bluetooth and USB connectivity are standard but the Model 3 is oddly not available with AM radio or SiriusXM satellite radio. Several other internet streaming radio options, however, are standard, with In-car internet streaming music & media and Internet browser. 

    Warranty and Maintenance

    Tesla's overall warranty coverage is among the longest-lasting in the EV segment. However, it does not include corrosion protection. The Long Range model includes an additional 20,000 miles on the coverage period of its battery and drive components.

    A limited warranty covers 4 years or 50,000 miles while a powertrain warranty covers 8 years or 100,000 miles.

    Other Features/Accessories 

    The Model 3 has a tinted glass roof with ultraviolet and infrared protection, LED fog lamps with auto-dimming capability, power-folding heated side mirrors, keycard and smart device remote keyless entry, Heated mirrors, Front Fog/driving lights, Parking assist, Leatherette Seat trim and Cloth Seat trim. 

    Supercharging/ Charging

    The Model 3 offers several different Pay-Per-Use options for charging, including Tesla's network of fast charging via the Superchargers stations. Adapters for DC public-charging stations and 240-volt and 120-volt outlets; and a home-charging station are also provided.

     

    Model  Y 

    Tesla has a new ambitious project in the all-electric Model Y compact crossover. At the live-streamed unveiling event in March, Elon Musk touts the Model Y as capable of a driving range of up to 300 miles and 0 to 60-mph time of 3.5 seconds. 

    The Model Y looks very similar to the compact Model 3 sedan but it is bigger and so can be outfitted with a third row of seats for a total seating capacity of seven.

    Like the Model 3, the Model Y will eventually be available in the cost-leader Standard Range trim, but the first variants to launch will be the Long Range and Performance models.  

    Model Y Specs

    Drivetrain

    The Model Y boasts an all-wheel drive. The Long Range models can be fitted with either rear- or all-wheel drive. The all-wheel drive is standard on the Model Y Performance which consequently reduces its range capability when compared to the Standard.

    Comfort / Convenience

    An all-glass Tinted roof with ultraviolet and infrared protection gives an airy ambiance and an expansiveness that creates extra headroom and a seamless view of the sky.

    Seating 

    With three independently folding 2nd row seats, the Model Y boasts sitting up to 7 Adults. The seats are power adjustable 12-way while the front and rear seats are heated. The optional third row of seats will reportedly cost an additional $3000 and won't be available until later in the Model Y's production cycle. 

    With an elevated seating position and a low dashboard, the driver has a commanding view of the road ahead. 

    Range 

    The Model has a range of 300 miles at full charge. Charging overnight at home, or while at work, can allow Model Y owners the luxury of a full battery. However, whenever on the road, it is still easy to find a supercharger station and plug it in quickly at any public station or with the Tesla charging network.

    Acceleration  

    The Model Y hits an acceleration of 0-60 mph in 3.5s.

    Top Speed  

    The Model Y achieves a high top speed of 150 mph 

    Wheels

    The 20" Wheels are built for the firmness of the Model Y ride and also add optimum enhancement to the stability performance of the car.

    Safety 

    Model Y is designed to be the safest vehicle in its class. The low center of gravity, rigid body structure and large crumple zones provide unparalleled protection for the driver and other occupants which may result from a crash.

    Capacities  

    Due to the fact that the Model Y is smaller in size than Model X, the maximum cargo volume also drops to 66 cubic feet. However, the trunk size is still very suitable for the average owner. 

    Audio / Entertainment 

    Premium audio – 14 speakers, 1 subwoofer, and 2 amps deliver an upgraded audio and immersive sound system. Music and media are also available over Bluetooth.  

    Displays/ Navigation 

    Model Y is largely free of buttons and will rely mostly on a large infotainment display centered on a simple touchscreen dashboard. In-car internet streaming music, media, internet browser, and maps can be viewed with live traffic visualization from the touchscreen while the center console holds storage of the 4 USB ports and docking for 2 smartphones.

    Other Accessories/ Features 

    Other accessories on the Model Y include LED fog lamps with auto-dimming capability, power-folding heated side mirrors, location-aware automatic garage door opener, and many other features.

    Supercharger/Charging

    The Model 3 offers several different Pay-Per-Use options for charging, including Tesla's network of fast charging via the Superchargers stations. Adapters for DC public-charging stations and 240-volt and 120-volt outlets; and a home-charging station are also provided.

     

    Semi 

    Considering the torque needed for trucking, electric powertrains may begin to earn more attention. And so Tesla, as a vehicle manufacturer is no longer resting its oars on the minimal success, gained so far with the Model cars. 

    The Semi is thus designed to reinvent the way trucking is done. Tesla says its all-electric drivetrain will outperform many other truck types and deliver approximately 500 miles of range on a single charge while towing up to 80,000 lbs.

    The Tesla Semi is important for regular folks for several reasons. One, the truck could potentially reduce shipping costs and therefore the price of goods. Walmart is reported to have ordered an undisclosed number of the Tesla Semi already. 

    On another hand, more efficient trucking could increase safety on our roadways and also improve the flow of traffic. 

    When the Semi eventually takes over trucking on roads, it would definitely make roadways safer, and make commuting quieter as loud diesel engines, exhausts and pollution would be eliminated.

    Tesla Semi Specs

    Powertrain  

    There are four independent electric motors mounted on the rear axles.

    Tesla claims the electric motors are derived from those used on the Model 3 and are therefore validated to last a lifetime of more than a million miles. The battery pack will supply the energy needed to drive 500 miles at the legal load limit of 80,000 pounds. 

    Performance-wise, the boundless torque of the electric motors will allow the Tesla Semi to reach 60 mph in less than 5 seconds without a trailer and 20 seconds when fully loaded to 80,000 lbs. 

    Braking 

    As for brakes, the Tesla Semi uses regenerative braking. The regenerative brakes are said to recover 98 percent of kinetic energy before converting it to electrical energy to recharge the battery. Since the conventional friction brakes only handle two percent of the load, they are expected to last the life of the truck, therefore the regenerative braking brings the Semi to a halt in a relatively shorter time.

    Aerodynamics 

    With its beautiful and sleek design, the Semi is aerodynamically designed while registering a Drag Coefficient Of 0.36.

    Acceleration 

    The Semi can achieve 0 to 60 mph in 5 seconds when unloaded while when fully loaded, it can achieve 0 to 60 mph in 20 Seconds. In essence, the Tesla Semi can achieve a 0-60 mph loaded with 80,000 lbs in 20 seconds.

    Speed 

    The Semi ramps up a 5% Grade at 60 mph without losing momentum – most other turbodiesel engines cannot go past 45 mph.

    Stability 

    The Tesla Semi’s low-slung battery pack will also help keep body roll under control whenever there is a slip. Consequently, with the majority of weight near the ground, the Semi will have a smaller chance of rolling over in an accident. 

    Range  

    Depending on which drivetrain or cargo, the Semi will drive 300 to 500 miles easily. Even with up to 80,000 lbs in tow, the Semi still consumes less than 2 KW Per Mile.

    Energy Consumption 

    Energy consumption by Semi truck is less than 2 kWh per mile.

    Comfort / Convenience 

    Behind the driver is a sleeper cab, offering a place to relax while on the road. And speaking of relaxing, the Tesla Semi comes with Autopilot, allowing the driver to sometimes hand over driving duties to the computer. 

    The driver is positioned front and center within the cab, putting him in a perfect vantage position. In this way, the driver can see everything around the front end of the truck, assisted by the short overhangs and the 360-view camera system. 

    Seating 

    There is a center-mounted Driver’s Seat with a sleeper cab as support or accompaniment for the driver.

    Audio / Entertainment

    Premium audio provides an ambient sound experience

    Safety / Security

    One of the biggest highlights of the Tesla Semi is its safety features – both active and passive. On the passive side, Tesla says the Semi’s architecture is designed to handle impacts better than regular 18-wheelers. An impact-resistant windshield helps guard against flying debris on the road. Tesla even demonstrated this with a flying trailer hitch ball mount. The glass breaks, but the steel tube and hitch ball are kept outside the truck and away from the driver’s face.

    Should something happen, perhaps an accident, the battery is protected in a reinforced shell.

    The thermonuclear blast-proof windshield protects the driver in case there is a crash aiming at the driver. The low center of gravity also reduces rollover risk and prevents tumbling. Likewise, the 360-Degree camera system not only serves as the side mirrors but also records events in case something unpleasant happens on the road. It uses its 360-degree camera system to automatically warn the driver of dangers lurking around the truck. The Semi also has Enhanced Autopilot, Automatic Emergency Braking, Automatic Lane Keeping, and

    But preventing accidents is what the Tesla Semi does best. Lane Departure Warning. And like the last airplane you flew in, it’s got an event recorder that saves everything happening in and around the truck before, during, and shortly after an accident.

    Displays/Navigation 

    Center-mounted driver’s seat positions for easier access to two large touchscreens serve as workstations, the gauge cluster, system controls, and displays for the cameras. The built-in computer systems and tablet screens also contain the driver’s logbook information, making it easier to keep track of the mileage on driving time.

    Fuel Savings

    Tesla says the Semi can save roughly $200,000 in fuel costs alone when compared to a diesel-powered semi-truck over a span of a million miles of travel. As a million miles is about the life expectancy of a semi-truck, such a projection is actually realistic enough. Considering also the relatively low cost of electricity, such projected savings are possible to achieve. 

    Regardless of the actual specifics, Tesla claims companies will save money by switching to the all-electric Semi.

    Expected Base Price

    (300-mile range) $150,000

    Expected Base Price

    (500-mile range) $180,000

    Base Reservation

    $20,000

    Expected Founders Series Price

    $200,000

    Founders Series Reservation

    $200,000

    Other Features/Accessories

    The high and low roof versions' 360-degree camera system hooks to any conventional 18-wheeler trailer. Thanks to the active safety systems, autopilot and autonomous feature named Convoy which allows for better performance where a number of Semi after another without necessarily needing a driver. 

    Supercharging 

    The supercharger stations are also available to the Tesla Semi for recharging. 

    Along with the Semi, Tesla will be releasing a new charging system. It’s called the Megacharger which is a high-speed DC charging station capable of adding roughly 400 miles of range in only 30 minutes. Tesla asserts that the Megachargers can also be installed by fleet operators anywhere along their routes and will be common at truck stops in heavily trafficked areas.

     

    Tesla and the Rest of the World 

    Tesla Models as Status Symbol

    Owning a Tesla is now as much a status symbol as it is a means of assured mobility. Owning a Tesla is slowly climbing to be an event as close to the pride with which Apple customers wear or carry the range of products.

    As much as Tesla and National Highway Safety Traffic Administration may not approve of yet, social media gets awash with videos of Tesla owners using the car hands-free. Tesla is arguably the only car manufacturer deploying the driver assist technology full scale.

    The Autopilot system is so intelligent that it can get updated and improved just by a simple update through the display screen via the internet. In fact, the overzealousness of some drivers has been blamed more for a few of the accidents Tesla has recorded so far. There were owners who were bent on testing the limits of the autopilot system. But even Tesla admits that it is not a perfect autonomous system just yet.

    The early adopters, adherents, and buyers of the Tesla EV Models must have seen something others did not see or did not fancy much. And yes, sometimes, it is necessary to drive the public toward an electric future as many Tesla buyers have so far done.

    There are a number of vehicles that depend on modern technology but none is currently as software-savvy or software-dependent as the Tesla EVs. This could be both an advantage and a disadvantage depending on the geography of the Tesla owner. While it could be a thing of pride to be the only one driving a Tesla in the vicinity, you may not find it funny having to fumble about trying to fix an issue with your car is one extreme corner of the world which it would take Tesla service team an eternity to reach. 

    There is a consolation in that regard after all; Tesla EVs rarely need maintenance as much as the traditional internal combustion engines. 

    Only drivers who feel a sense of pride from joining the Tesla Owner’s club could care so much about drawing such systems to the limit. After all, not even anybody who is unsure of their finances could just impulsively determine to place an order for one of these expensive vehicles.

    Besides, how many people can afford to scrape off $100,000 off their life saving or max their credit cards to buy an electric car? There definitely is a high barrier of entry for prospective customers and that too comes with a certain degree of status. The symbolism of the status associated with owning a Tesla is glaring enough yet is it hardly ever spoken about.

     

    Car of the Future

    While electric vehicles and electric vehicles (EVs) currently account for less than 1% of the cars produced annually, many believe that we are still at the beginning of an Electric Car Revolution. In its recent report on the subject, Bernstein, a prominent Wall Street research firm, predicted that EVs could represent 40% of auto sales and 30% of the global car market in the next 20 years. 

    Likewise, another leading global financial services company, UBS, believes that a growing global electric vehicle fleet will be disruptive to gasoline demand by 2031.

    There are many reasons for the growing belief that EVs represent the future of autos. First, battery technology costs have declined significantly. Also, further technological innovations, as well as substantial new battery capacity coming on stream in China, bode well for further price declines. 

    Secondly, charging infrastructure is now being put in place in China, the United States, and other major countries around the world. Finally, EVs have lower operating costs than ICE vehicles, even at today’s oil prices. As technology costs drive the initial price of EVs lower, price parity with ICE-powered vehicles and lower operating costs will make a compelling economic case for EVs.

    In terms of the development of its EV industry, China has now pulled ahead of other countries, a leadership position that it is unlikely to relinquish. In 2016, 507,000 EVs and Hybrid vehicles were sold in China - a 53% increase from 2015. Meanwhile, 222,200 EVs and Hybrid vehicles were sold in Europe, a 14% increase while 157,130 units were sold in the United States - a 36% increase year on year. Dependence on oil and other fossil fuels could drastically by 30-60 percent while lowering the carbon pollution for good from the transportation sector by as much as 20 percent.

    One other very important groundbreaking event was the hauling of a Tesla Roadster into space. It heralded the beginning of the era of electricity used in most devices on a global scale. That daring event was also an attempt to stamp Tesla’s feet in space long before even a SpaceX fight delivered its first human cargo into Mars as proposed. 

    It’s hard to tell where the future will take electric vehicles, but it’s clear they hold a lot of potential for creating a more sustainable future. There is an imminent possibility that all cars in the U.S. will all be transitioned from light-duty vehicles to hybrids or plug-in electric vehicles using the current technology mix. 

    New battery technology as well as Artificial Intelligence (AI), Geographic Information System (GIS), and sensor-powered Autopilot systems will definitely transform the way we drive and commute soon.

    Hybrids, All-Electric Tesla models, and Biofuels are all going to claim a larger percentage of the future of wheeled vehicles. Not only will these improvements in the car technology phase alter our driving experience forever, but they will also make our autos more energy-efficient while securing a sustainable future for our environment.

     

    Conclusion

    Potential Tesla customer does not have to debate too much with their instinct; they can just locate the nearest Tesla showroom and test-drive one – the trial will convince anyone that Tesla Models have come to stay. Many electric car enthusiasts also understand that the time of fossil fuels is ticking towards the end and with the rapidly changing climate, they feel a gripping sense of duty to help steer the planet away from dependence on oil. 

    Batteries are the most expensive and most volatile part of any EV; nevertheless, battery technology keeps evolving positively by the day. An improvement in the use of Cobalt, an expensive stabilizer element utilized in lithium-ion cells which prevents the cell from heating up too much and exploding, is gradually making energy storage in batteries more efficient.

    Even though, the constant crisis in the Congo where cobalt is mostly mined has impeded progress greatly over the years and made scarcer the essential element; the recent presidential elections in December 2018, won by a new party and candidate may augur better for the embattled country and improve the fortunes of cobalt mining in the country. This would a win for the batteries and the electric vehicle industry. 

    Tesla is now making a profit, their cars are getting cheaper and more affordable while also recently meeting up with target production figures shows great signs that Tesla is on a bullish trend. There are no indications that any of the released Tesla Models will be discontinued or recalled soon; the fundamentals of Tesla Motors keep getting stronger. 

    All in all, there are indications that the Tesla Models which will soon flood the car supply market have the capability to give ICE cars and their manufacturers a run for their money as we move further into the future. 

    Bringing in SolarCity, with those unique solar panels, alongside the Powerwall and the Powerpack energy storage devices, could also be the masterstroke that will cement the place of Tesla and its electric vehicles in history for inspiring and leading the revolution towards a world-impacting trend. The combination of the Tesla suite of products and services now means you can generate free energy at home and then use that generated power at home to charge your Tesla for free too. The prospect of the free energy ecosystem Tesla is building for their customers feels too good to be true. 

    All odds now seem to be stacked in favor of the Tesla Model cars, and rightly so, most of the fundamentals hold to be true so far. 

    Choosing a Tesla Model appears to be the smartest decision any potential car owner would be making right now; not even just because of the modern technology packed in it, but also for the fact that they will be saving the environment and humanity at large at the cost of nothing. 

     

    BIBLIOGRAPHY

    1.  Automobile and the Environment in American History: Energy Use and the Internal Combustion Engine. Autolife.umd.umich.edu http://www.autolife.umd.umich.edu/Environment/E_Overview/E_Overview3.htm
    1. On 20th Anniversary Of Gm Ev1, How Much Has Actually Changed? Steve Hanley. https://cleantechnica.com/2016/12/07/20th-anniversary-gm-ev1-much-actually-changed/
    2. China Is Leading The World's Boom In Electric Vehicles -- Here's Why. Jack Perkowski - https://www.forbes.com/sites/jackperkowski/2017/06/01/china-is-leading-the-worlds-boom-in-electric-vehicles-heres-why/#15ab44aa2f2e
    1. Gasoline Vs. Electric Cars: Energy Usage and Cost.                       https://www.masterresource.org/electric-vehicles/energy-usage-cost-gasoline-vs-electric/
    2. What Is Tesla Energy Worth? Over $10 Billion & Growing? https://cleantechnica.com/2018/03/25/evannex-tesla-energy-worth-10b-growing/
    3. Tesla, Inc.                                                                                                                       https://www.tesla.com/roadster
    1. 2019 Tesla Model S Reviews | Tesla Model S Price, Photos, and Specs. https://www.caranddriver.com/tesla/model-s
    1. Tesla Model 3 Production on Track To Meet Quarterly Projections. https://www.digitaltrends.com/cars/tesla-model-3-performance-specs-news-rumors/
    1. 2020 Tesla Model Y Reviews | Tesla Model Y Price, Photos, and Specs. https://www.caranddriver.com/tesla/model-y
    1. 2019 Tesla Semi @ Top Speed.                                                                   https://www.topspeed.com/cars/tesla/2019-tesla-semi-ar178416.html

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